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Automated Chest Compression and Field ECMO

References and Resources

This page provides information on relevant research and resources from research studies, trade journals, and other resources that may be useful to consider when making purchasing decisions.

Research Papers

On April 2, 2021, a search was performed on PubMed using the following search parameters: “resuscitation”[MeSH Terms] AND “mechanical chest compression”[All Fields] and yielded 126 citations. The titles of the cited papers were manually reviewed to exclude papers that did not appear to have mechanical chest compression as a primary focus or were otherwise not relevant to prehospital care, although some hospital studies were included if there was an apparent prehospital care connection (e.g., facilitating intra-arrest cardiac cath lab procedures). Citation titles indicating animal studies were also excluded. After these exclusions, 26 papers were selected and are presented below in order of publication date (most recent listed first).



    • 1: Comparison of in-hospital use of mechanical chest compression devices for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: AUTOPULSE vs LUCAS
      Hyun Tae Kim, Jae Guk Kim, Yong Soo Jang, Gu Hyun Kang, Wonhee Kim, Hyun Young Choi, Gwang Soo Jun
      Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Nov; 98(45): e17881. Published online 2019 Nov 11. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017881
      PMCID: PMC6855519


    • 2: Mechanical chest compression with LUCAS device does not improve clinical outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
      Mao Liu, Zhuang Shuai, Jiao Ai, Kai Tang, Hui Liu, Jiankang Zheng, Junqi Gou, Zhan Lv
      Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Nov; 98(44): e17550. Published online 2019 Nov 1. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017550
      PMCID: PMC6946388


    • 3: Mechanical Adjuncts for Cardiocerebral Resuscitation
      Matthias L. Riess, Claudius Balzer
      Expert Rev Med Devices. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2020 Sep 1.Published in final edited form as: Expert Rev Med Devices. 2019 Sep; 16(9): 771–776. Published online 2019 Aug 1. doi: 10.1080/17434440.2019.1649135
      PMCID: PMC6733612


    • 4: A meta-analysis of the resuscitative effects of mechanical and manual chest compression in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients
      Ni Zhu, Qi Chen, Zhixia Jiang, Futuan Liao, Bujin Kou, Hui Tang, Manhong Zhou
      Crit Care. 2019; 23: 100. Published online 2019 Mar 27. doi: 10.1186/s13054-019-2389-6
      PMCID: PMC6437862


    • 5: Application of mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices and their value in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A retrospective analysis of the German Resuscitation Registry
      Stephan Seewald, Manuel Obermaier, Rolf Lefering, Andreas Bohn, Michael Georgieff, Claus-Martin Muth, Jan-Thorsten Gräsner, Siobhán Masterson, Jens Scholz, Jan Wnent
      PLoS One. 2019; 14(1): e0208113. Published online 2019 Jan 2. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208113
      PMCID: PMC6314607


    • 6: Mechanical versus manual chest compressions for cardiac arrest
      Peter L , Steven C Brooks, Cochrane Heart Group
      Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Aug; 2018(8): CD007260. Published online 2018 Aug 20. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007260.pub4
      PMCID: PMC6953326


    • 7: Mechanical CPR: Who? When? How?
      Kurtis Poole, Keith Couper, Michael A. Smyth, Joyce Yeung, Gavin D. Perkins
      Crit Care. 2018; 22: 140. Published online 2018 May 29. doi: 10.1186/s13054-018-2059-0
      PMCID: PMC5975402


    • 8: Efficacy and safety of mechanical versus manual compression in cardiac arrest – A Bayesian network meta-analysis
      Safi U. Khan, Ahmad N. Lone, Swapna Talluri, Muhammad Z. Khan, Muhammad U. Khan, Edo Kaluski
      Resuscitation. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2019 Sep 1.Published in final edited form as: Resuscitation. 2018 Sep; 130: 182–188. Published online 2018 May 7. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.05.005
      PMCID: PMC6423531


    • 9: Training approaches for the deployment of a mechanical chest compression device: a randomised controlled manikin study
      Keith Couper, Rochelle M Velho, Tom Quinn, Anne Devrell, Ranjit Lall, Barry Orriss, Joyce Yeung, Gavin D Perkins
      BMJ Open. 2018; 8(2): e019009. Published online 2018 Feb 1. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019009
      PMCID: PMC5879816


    • 10: Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Hospital Survival Among Adult Patients With Nontraumatic Out‐of‐Hospital Cardiac Arrest Attending the Emergency Department: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study in Japan (SOS‐KANTO [Survey of Survivors after Out‐of‐Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Kanto Area] 2012 Study)
      Kei Hayashida, Takashi Tagami, Tatsuma Fukuda, Masaru Suzuki, Naohiro Yonemoto, Yutaka Kondo, Tomoko Ogasawara, Atsushi Sakurai, Yoshio Tahara, Ken Nagao, Arino Yaguchi, Naoto Morimura, the SOS‐KANTO 2012 Study Group
      J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Nov; 6(11): e007420. Published online 2017 Oct 31. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.007420
      PMCID: PMC5721797


    • 11: Safety of mechanical chest compression devices AutoPulse and LUCAS in cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial for non-inferiority
      Rudolph W Koster, Ludo F Beenen, Esther B van der Boom, Anje M Spijkerboer, Robert Tepaske, Allart C van der Wal, Stefanie G Beesems, Jan G Tijssen
      Eur Heart J. 2017 Oct 21; 38(40): 3006–3013. Published online 2017 Jul 1. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx318
      PMCID: PMC5837501


    • 12: Prompt use of mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the MECCA study report
      Venkataraman Anantharaman, Boon Lui Benjamin Ng, Shiang Hu Ang, Chun Yue Francis Lee, Siew Hon Benjamin Leong, Marcus Eng Hock Ong, Siang Jin Terrance Chua, Antony Charles Rabind, Nagaraj Baglody Anjali, Ying Hao
      Singapore Med J. 2017 Jul; 58(7): 424–431. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2017071
      PMCID: PMC5523095


    • 13: The Efficacy of LUCAS in Prehospital Cardiac Arrest Scenarios: A Crossover Mannequin Study
      Robert A. Gyory, Scott E. Buchle, David Rodgers, Jeffrey S. Lubin
      West J Emerg Med. 2017 Apr; 18(3): 437–445. Published online 2017 Mar 14. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2017.1.32575
      PMCID: PMC5391893


    • 14: Prehospital randomised assessment of a mechanical compression device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (PARAMEDIC): a pragmatic, cluster randomised trial and economic evaluation.
      Simon Gates, Ranjit Lall, Tom Quinn, Charles D Deakin, Matthew W Cooke, Jessica Horton, Sarah E Lamb, Anne-Marie Slowther, Malcolm Woollard, Andy Carson, Mike Smyth, Kate Wilson, Garry Parcell, Andrew Rosser, Richard Whitfield, Amanda Williams, Rebecca Jones, Helen Pocock, Nicola Brock, John Jm Black, John Wright, Kyee Han, Gary Shaw, Laura Blair, Joachim Marti, Claire Hulme, Christopher McCabe, Silviya Nikolova, Zenia Ferreira, Gavin D Perkins
      Health Technol Assess. 2017 Mar; 21(11): 1–176. doi: 10.3310/hta21110
      PMCID: PMC5402209


    • 15: Mechanical chest compressions in the coronary catheterization laboratory – do not hesitate to go step further!
      Jan Bělohlávek, Tomáš Kovárník
      Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2016; 24: 102. Published online 2016 Aug 17. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0293-5
      PMCID: PMC4988012


    • 16: Arterial blood pressure differences between AutoPulse™ and Lucas2™during mechanic cardiopulmonary resuscitation
      Manuel Frey, Stefan Lötscher, Lorenz Theiler, Roland Albrecht
      Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2016; 24: 64. Published online 2016 Apr 30. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0253-0
      PMCID: PMC4852464


    • 17: Ruptured subcapsular liver haematoma following mechanically-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation
      John R Joseph, Robert Edward Freundlich, Mahshid Abir
      BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016: bcr2015213951. Published online 2016 Feb 2. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2015-213951
      PMCID: PMC4746549


    • 18: Mechanical versus manual chest compressions for cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis
      Hui Li, Dongping Wang, Yi Yu, Xiang Zhao, Xiaoli Jing
      Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2016; 24: 10. Published online 2016 Feb 1. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0202-y
      PMCID: PMC4736253


    • 19: Mechanical chest compressions in the coronary catheterization laboratory to facilitate coronary intervention and survival in patients requiring prolonged resuscitation efforts
      Henrik Wagner, Bjarne Madsen Hardig, Malin Rundgren, David Zughaft, Jan Harnek, Matthias Götberg, Göran K. Olivecrona
      Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2016; 24: 4. Published online 2016 Jan 21. doi: 10.1186/s13049-016-0198-3
      PMCID: PMC4721004


    • 20: Load-distributing-band cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest increases regional cerebral oxygenation: a single-center prospective pilot study
      Yoshihito Ogawa, Tadahiko Shiozaki, Tomoya Hirose, Mitsuo Ohnishi, Yasushi Nakamori, Hiroshi Ogura, Takeshi Shimazu
      Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2015; 23: 99. Published online 2015 Nov 14. doi: 10.1186/s13049-015-0182-3
      PMCID: PMC4644276


    • 21: Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest before and after introduction of a mechanical chest compression device, LUCAS-2; a prospective, observational study
      Tinne Tranberg, Jens F Lassen, Anne K Kaltoft, Troels M Hansen, Carsten Stengaard, Lars Knudsen, Sven Trautner, Christian J Terkelsen
      Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2015; 23: 37. Published online 2015 Apr 22. doi: 10.1186/s13049-015-0114-2
      PMCID: PMC4411930


    • 22: The Study Protocol for the LINC (LUCAS in Cardiac Arrest) Study: a study comparing conventional adult out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a concept with mechanical chest compressions and simultaneous defibrillation
      Sten Rubertsson, Johan Silfverstolpe, Liselott Rehn, Thomas Nyman, Rob Lichtveld, Rene Boomars, Wendy Bruins, Björn Ahlstedt, Helena Puggioli, Erik Lindgren, David Smekal, Gunnar Skoog, Robert Kastberg, Anna Lindblad, David Halliwell, Martyn Box, Fredrik Arnwald, Bjarne Madsen Hardig, Douglas Chamberlain, Johan Herlitz, Rolf Karlsten
      Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2013; 21: 5. Published online 2013 Jan 25. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-21-5
      PMCID: PMC3575236


    • 23: Hyperinvasive approach to out-of hospital cardiac arrest using mechanical chest compression device, prehospital intraarrest cooling, extracorporeal life support and early invasive assessment compared to standard of care. A randomized parallel groups comparative study proposal. “Prague OHCA study”
      Jan Belohlavek, Karel Kucera, Jiri Jarkovsky, Ondrej Franek, Milana Pokorna, Jiri Danda, Roman Skripsky, Vit Kandrnal, Martin Balik, Jan Kunstyr, Jan Horak, Ondrej Smid, Jaroslav Valasek, Vratislav Mrazek, Zdenek Schwarz, Ales Linhart
      J Transl Med. 2012; 10: 163. Published online 2012 Aug 10. doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-10-163
      PMCID: PMC3492121


    • 24: Mechanical CPR devices compared to manual CPR during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and ambulance transport: a systematic review
      Marcus Eng Hock Ong, Kevin E Mackey, Zhong Cheng Zhang, Hideharu Tanaka, Matthew Huei-Ming Ma, Robert Swor, Sang Do Shin
      Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2012; 20: 39. Published online 2012 Jun 18. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-39
      PMCID: PMC3416709


    • 25: Prehospital randomised assessment of a mechanical compression device in cardiac arrest (PaRAMeDIC) trial protocol
      Gavin D Perkins, Malcolm Woollard, Matthew W Cooke, Charles Deakin, Jessica Horton, Ranjit Lall, Sarah E Lamb, Chris McCabe, Tom Quinn, Anne Slowther, Simon Gates, PARAMEDIC trial collaborators
      Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2010; 18: 58. Published online 2010 Nov 5. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-18-58
      PMCID: PMC2993645


  • 26: Submersion, accidental hypothermia and cardiac arrest, mechanical chest compressions as a bridge to final treatment: a case report
    Hans Friberg, Malin Rundgren
    Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2009; 17: 7. Published online 2009 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-17-7
    PMCID: PMC2650678

Other Articles and Resources

A Google search was conducted on April 2, 2021 using the following search string: “mechanical chest compressions” The search results were manually reviewed to exclude items that did not appear to have mechanical chest compression related to CPR as a primary focus or were otherwise not relevant to prehospital care. Also excluded were items from manufacturers, as their information may be accessed through their individual product and company pages on this website. Items found that were already included in the research results listed above were also excluded. The first top 10 items to meet these criteria in the search results are listed below.

  1. Automated chest compression devices: 10 things you need to know to save lives. April 27, 2017.
  2. Mechanical CPR Devices: Where is the Science? JEMS. November 12, 2019.
  3. Porritt, Kylie PhD, MNSc, BN, Grad Dip NursSc (Cardiac). Mechanical vs. Manual Chest Compressions for Cardiac Arrest. American Journal of Nursing: May 2019 – Volume 119 – Issue 5 – p 21. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000557908.04904.13
  4. Tennyson J: Mechanical CPR Devices: Increased Risk of Harm without Benefits.
  5. Catharine A Bon, MD, Baruch Berzon, MD, Joshua Schechter, MD, Ali A Sovari, MD, FACP, FACC, Mary L Windle, PharmD. Kirsten A Bechtel, MD, Andrew K Chang, MD, MS: What is the role of mechanical chest compressions in the delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)? Medscape. Updated: Sep 15, 2020
  6. Josep Iglesies, Pablo Loma-Osorio, Jaime Aboala, María Núñeza, Ramon Brugada: Mechanical Chest Compressions and Traumatic Complications in Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest. Is There a Price to Pay? Revista Española de Cardiología. Vol. 72. Issue 3. pages 259-261 (March 2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.rec.2018.01.019.
  7. Rubertsson S, Lindgren E, Smekal D, et al. Mechanical Chest Compressions and Simultaneous Defibrillation vs Conventional Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: The LINC Randomized Trial. JAMA. 2014;311(1):53–61. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.282538.
  8. Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (mCPR). Life In The Fastlane Library. Chris Nickson. Nov 3, 2020.
  9. Mechanical Versus Manual Chest Compression.
  10. Liu M, Tang K, Ai J, Shuai Z, Zheng J, Gou J, Lv Z. Efficiency of mechanical chest compressions with the LUCAS device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: a meta-analysis. J Xiangya Med 2020;5:3.. doi: 10.21037/jxym.2020.02.02


Other Relevant Papers:

J. Karasek, A. Blankova, A. Doubková, T. Pitasova, D. Nahalka, T. Bartes, J. Hladik, T. Adamek, T. Jirasek, R. Polasek, P. Ostadal,
The comparison of cardiopulmonary resuscitation-related trauma: Mechanical versus manual chest compressions. Forensic Science International. Volume 323, 2021, 110812. ISSN 0379-0738.